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Commerce

Coins, hackmetal, scales and weights.

There's a very interesting article on the distribution of Viking spheroid oblate weights (see the image of scales and weights below) here: http://vikingmetalwork.blogspot.com/2012/11/standardised-viking-weights-part-1.html
The first Scandinavian coin type from Ribe, Denmark, early 8th C, published SCBI 69, 345. The Kingdom of Northumbria, Eanred copper styca (810-841), from the Bolton Percy Hoard, found 1847. The Kingdom of Northumbria, ∆thelred II copper styca from Bolton Percy hoard found in 1847. Penny of SIEFRED. +SI EF RED. ca 894-898. Viking Kingdom of York, Hunedeus and Cnut, 'Cunetti' Group (c.895-902), Penny, York mint.
Viking Kingdom of York, Hunedeus and Cnut, 'Cunetti' Group (c.895-902), Penny, York mint. Viking St Peter penny, phase 1, ca 905-910, EBORACIT Viking St Peter penny, phase 1, ca 905-910 Viking St Peter sword and Thor hammer penny, York. ca 919-925. Viking St Peter sword and Thor hammer penny, York. ca 919-925.
Aethelstan portrait on silver penny. He conquered York in 927. Anlaf Sihtricsson, 941-943. Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire. Triquetra. Anlaf Sihtricsson, 941-943. Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire. Perhaps the Raven Banner, thought to be symbol of Odin. Viking St Eadmund memorial penny. ca 895-915. Viking St Eadmund memorial penny.
Ric I Normandy b-2.jpg Ric I Normandy a-2.jpg c 975-980, Harald Bluetooth half bracteate, Jelling c 975-980, Harald Bluetooth half bracteate, Jelling Silver penny of Aethelred II (978-1016), Long Cross type (c.997-c.1003), York, Hundulf. ∆–ELRED REX ANGLO, Viking peck marks.
Silver penny of Aethelred II (978-1016), Long Cross type (c.997-c.1003), York, Hundulf. ∆–ELRED REX ANGLO, Viking peck marks. Coin of Sihtric (Sigtrygg Silkbeard), 1015-1035, Hiberno-Norse Phase II. Dublin mint, Faeremin moneyer. Otto III (983-1002) traded coin showing interlaced triquetra. Svend Estridsen penny (1047-1074) Svend Estridsen penny (1047-1074)
Viking Age scales and spheroid oblate weights, reportedly Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg of Norse sagas) and England (top left). Viking cubo-octahedral weight, 23 mm on the diagonal, Ukraine. Polyhedral weight, 25 mm, Wychnor near Tamworth, Staffordshire. Viking Age cube-octahedral weight, 17 mm, Yorkshire. Lead weight, 29 mm diameter, with inset fragment of insular metalwork.
Kievan Rus' 46 mm copper ingot wrapped in gold with ornament of five circles. ca 9th C. Kievan Rus' 23 mm copper ingot wrapped in gold, Ukraine. The ruse was revealed by a small knife cut. 4 cm ingot of Viking Age silver with triangle and circle stamped decoration. UK. 31 mm silver ingot, Yorkshire. Viking Arabian hacksilver, N Europe (resonant for me given four years living on the Arabian Peninsula).
Dirham Cordoba from the year of the Viking attack on Seville Umayyad dirham AH83. Umayyad dirham, Al Walid I. Umayyad dirham AH83. Umayyad dirham, Al Walid I.