The ‘Parmak Kapısı’ (= Rung Gate, leading to the next degree of the fortress) is the entrance to the inner citadel.
It is in fact a defensive tower, combined with a two gates. The first gate gives access to a rectangular inner court; from there, a second gate opens into the inner citadel.
This is a remarkable piece of military engineering: the outer gate is placed, in a way that a righthanded attacker cannot use his shield (he would have to walk backwards, and that’s not the proper tactics to attack...). Then, if attackers break through the first gate, they enter in a closed and limited space, where they will be attacked from all directions, by defenders standing 15 m above them. Moreover, the inner court is too small, to manoeuvre a battering-ram heavy enough to smash the second door.
On the picture: the outer gate.
Correspondent: J.M.Criel, Antwerpen
Source: ‘Guides Bleus: Turquie’ – Edition 1986.