photo sharing and upload picture albums photo forums search pictures popular photos photography help login
Joao Pedro Assumpcao Bastos | profile | all galleries >> My Camera Collection >> The Nikon F Saga tree view | thumbnails | slideshow

The Nikon F Saga

Português:
Nikon é uma das mais icônicas marcas no mundo da fotografia. Sua relevância é indiscutível na história da evolução de equipamentos. Sem entrarmos em detalhes sobre a fundação da empresa, sua real ascenção no mundo fotográfico iniciou nos anos 1950s. Durante a guerra da Coréia, fotográficos ocidentais (com destaque para David Douglas Duncan) começaram a utilizar as excelentes lentes Nikon adaptadas às cameras Leica e Contax, a telêmetro (rangefinder), ideais para esse tipo de fotografia. Nikon iniciou então a produção de câmeras rangefinder através de uma sábia combinação das qualidades das Leica e das Contax, deixando de lado defeitos e inconvenientes. Em 1959, percebendo que o futuro estava nas câmeras reflex, Nikon deu um salto ousado: cessou com a produção das rangefinder e lançou a Nikon F, acrescentado um sistema de prisma e espelho nas já consolidadas e robustas Nikon a telêmetro. Foi un sucesso avassalador, deixando – bem – para trás, todas as outras marcas. Rapidamente (1962), propos um prisma com fotômetro (Photomic) e como seu sistema de lentes Nikkor possuia a pré-seleção automática, era possível a focalização e medida de luz a plena abertura. A Nikon dominou o mercado de câmeras profissionais até que Canon com seu sistema EOS, em 1987, passou a ser uma concorrente à altura. As máquinas profissionais foram Nikon F (1959), F2 (1971), F3 (1980) e, com autofocus, as Nikon F4 (1988), F5 (1996) e a última profissional com filme, a F6 (2004). Em paralelo à linha profissional, lançou (1965) a excelente série Nikkormat FTn (e as que seguiram, FT2 e FT3), mecânicas e semi-automáticas que eram muito robustas (com o obturador Square Copal, também usado por outras marcas). Idem para a série Nikkormat EL (1972 e após suas variantes) que tinha obturador Copal eletrônico e eram automáticas com prioridade ao diafragma. Em 1977, inspirado pela Olympus, produziu as mais compactas Nikon FM (mecânicas, semi-automáticas) e a FE (1978, eletrônica, automática), que depois foram modernizadas como FM2 (1982) e FE2 (1983). Ainda a assinalar, a Nikon FA (1983), possuindo vários automatismos e com o pioneiro sistema matricial de medida de luz. Ainda em paralelo, Nikon criou uma linha mais popular com as Nikon EM, FG, etc… de menor interesse para nós. As lentes pré-autofocus culminou com as primorosas lentes AI e AIs, sendo que a famosa baioneta F sempre se manteve idêntica nos seus acoplamentos mecânicos. Assim, uma lente de 1959 pode ainda ser utilizada na mais moderna DSLR Nikon. Somente em 2019 a Nikon lançou a baioneta Z, necessária para a técnica “mirrorless”, totalmente diferente. Finalizamos dizendo que a Nikon produziu câmeras, em geral, muito robustas e uma série de lentes muito diversificada que eram (e são) optica e mecanicamente excelentes. Entre as grandes cinco marcas japonesas (Nikon, Canon, Minolta, Pentax e Olympus), Nikon era a mais cara. As várias gerações de fotográfos, profissionais ou não, que tiveram condição de adquirir Nikon foram amplamente contemplados com um equipamento de alta qualidade, abrangente e muito durável.
English:
Nikon is one of the most iconic photography companies. The equipment evolution has an immense contribution of Nikon. Without diving in details about its foundation, the real rise of Nikon began at the Korea war, in the 1950s. Several photographers (David Douglas Duncan, as the best example) started using the excellent Nikon lenses adapted to the rangefinder cameras as Leica and Contax, the most adapted for such a type of photography. The production of rangefinders Nikon started with the wise combination of Leica and Contax qualities while avoiding their drawbacks. In 1959, observing the future of photography was on reflex cameras, Nikon proceed with a daring leap: they stopped with the production of successful rangefinders and the Nikon F was released based on the already reliable Nikons rangefinder, adding a mirror system and the viewing prism. It was an immense success, leaving the other brands far behind. Quickly (1962), the Photomic viewfinder, for the exposure metering, was available. An excellent and large lens system was also put together, with diaphragm automatic pre-selection, allowing wide open light metering (with the Photomic). Nikon dominated the photo market until 1987, when Canon created the EOS autofocus system. The professional cameras were the Nikon F (1959), F2 (1971), F3 (1980) and the autofocus bodies Nikon F4 (1988), F5 (1996) and the F6 (2004), last one using film. In parallel to the professional line, Nikon had the excellent Nikkormat FT (1965, and later the updated FT2, FT3), mechanical and semi-auto. They were very robust, equipped with the Copal Square Shutter, also employed by other brands. There was also the electronic and automatic (aperture priority) Nikkormat EL line (1972), which used the Copal shutter as well. In 1977, inspired by Olympus, Nikon produced the more compact Nikon FM (mechanical and semi-automatic) and the Nikon FE (electronic, automatic) in 1978. They were modified and modernized with the FM2 (1982) and FE2 models (1983). Let us mention the Nikon FA (1983) with multiple automatic modes and the pioneering matrix light meter. Also in parallel, there was a more popular line of cameras as Nikon EM, FG, etc… out of our interest here. The pre-autofocus lenses using the F bayonet had their highest level with the AI and AIs lines. The AF lenses followed maintaining the F mount, which means that even now, a 1959 Nikon lens can be coupled with the most advanced DSLR Nikon cameras. Only in 2019, Nikon introduced the new Z bayonet for full functionality with the mirrorless line of Nikon bodies. Let us finish stating that Nikon produced cameras, in general, very competent and robust with a very large lens system, optical and mechanically excellent. Among the five big Japanese brands (Nikon, Canon, Minolta, Pentax and Olympus), Nikon was the most expensive. However, the several generations of photographers that could afford it, were (and still are) very satisfied with a very reliable, high quality and durable equipment.
The manual focus cameras: Nikon F3t (behind, left), Nikon F, Nikon F3, Nikkormat FT3 (front, left) and Nikon FM2.
The manual focus cameras: Nikon F3t (behind, left), Nikon F, Nikon F3, Nikkormat FT3 (front, left) and Nikon FM2.
The autofocus bodies: Nikon F4 (left), Nikon F5 and Nikon F100.
The autofocus bodies: Nikon F4 (left), Nikon F5 and Nikon F100.
The Nikon F, with the Photomic FTn; one of the best cameras ever: solid, silent, robust and very precise.
The Nikon F, with the Photomic FTn; one of the best cameras ever: solid, silent, robust and very precise.
The Nikon F and the Photomic FTn.
The Nikon F and the Photomic FTn.
The Nikon F and the plain viewfinder (without photometer).
The Nikon F and the plain viewfinder (without photometer).
The Nikkormat FT3 (1977), evolution of the original Nikkormat of 1965.
The Nikkormat FT3 (1977), evolution of the original Nikkormat of 1965.
The Nikon FM2 (1982); the shutter can reach 1/8000 s, high peformance for the time.
The Nikon FM2 (1982); the shutter can reach 1/8000 s, high peformance for the time.
The two Nikon F3; the original F3 (gift from my friend Caio Cunha) and the Nikon F3t (right).
The two Nikon F3; the original F3 (gift from my friend Caio Cunha) and the Nikon F3t (right).
The professional line had interchangeable prisms; a sophisticate and expensive construction.
The professional line had interchangeable prisms; a sophisticate and expensive construction.
The professional  Nikon F4 (gift from my friend Arnulf Kost), from 1988.
The professional Nikon F4 (gift from my friend Arnulf Kost), from 1988.
The Nikon F4 with the waist level prism.
The Nikon F4 with the waist level prism.
The Nikon F4 with the waist level prism, viewed from above.
The Nikon F4 with the waist level prism, viewed from above.
The mighty Nikon F5; considered, by many, as the most advanced professional film camera ever.
The mighty Nikon F5; considered, by many, as the most advanced professional film camera ever.
The Nikon F100; an advanced camera, very pleasant to use.
The Nikon F100; an advanced camera, very pleasant to use.
My Nikkor lenses; the 16/3.5 (fish-eye), 24/2.8, 35/2., 50/2, 50/1.4, 85/2, 105/2.5, 135/2.8, 200/4.
My Nikkor lenses; the 16/3.5 (fish-eye), 24/2.8, 35/2., 50/2, 50/1.4, 85/2, 105/2.5, 135/2.8, 200/4.
The AF Nikkor lenses: the 180/2.8, 35-70/3.5-4.5 and the 28-105/3.5-4.5
The AF Nikkor lenses: the 180/2.8, 35-70/3.5-4.5 and the 28-105/3.5-4.5