Jinggang Shan (井岡山), or Jinggang Mountains, is located in the Luoxian Mountains (羅霄山), in the remote border region between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces of China. It lies at the junction of four counties - Ninggang, Yongxin, Suichuan and Lingxian. The mountains cover some 670 km, with an average elevation of 381.5 m above sea level. The highest point is 1841 m above sea level.
The massif itself consists of a number of thickly forested parallel ridges. On the heights there is not much farmland and most settlements at the base of the mountains. The main settlement is at Ciping, which is surrounded by five villages - Big Well, Little Well, Middle Well, Lower Well and Upper Well - from which Jinggangshan (literally "Well Ridge Mountains") took its name.
Jinggangshan is known as the birthplace of the Chinese Red Army (the People's Liberation Army of China) and the "cradle of the Chinese revolution". After the Kuomintang (KMT) turned against the Communist Party during the Shanghai Massacre of 1927, the Communists either went underground or fled to the countryside. Following the unsuccessful Autumn Harvest Uprising in Changsha, Mao Zedong led his 1000 remaining men to Jinggangshan, where he set up his first peasant soviet.
Jinggangshan is famous in Chinese History for being the place where the Communists began their 25,000 miles long march.
In recent years Jinggangshan has become an attraction for domestic tourists interested in revolutionary history. Sites promoted by the local authorities include the mint of the Red Army, the Revolution Museum and the Martyrs Cemetery. In 1981 an area of 16.6 km² was designated a Natural Protection Area. The next year Jinggang Mountain was listed as a National Priority Scenic Area. In May 2004 a domestic airport was opened to attract tourists.